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What are the common defects in wood

2018-09-26


Hard Wood Flooring Standard


Multiply Engineered Wood Flooring Standard


Bark Pocket (夹皮)

树木受伤之后继续生长,将受伤树皮全部或局部包入树干中所形成。一般以尺寸分等级。

夹皮破坏木材的完整性,随着发生年轮弯曲,使木材材质降低。

Comparatively small area of bark around which normal wood has grown. Also a patch of bark partially or wholly enclosed in the wood. Classified by size, as with pitch pockets.

wood defects Bark Pocket


Birdseye (鸟眼纹)

由纤维局部扭曲而形成的似鸟眼状的花纹,常出现在槭木(枫木)、桦木、水曲柳等树种。

Decorative figure due to small conical depressions in the outer annual rings, which appear to

follow the same contour in subsequent growth rings, probably for many years. Rotary slicing

(旋切) cuts the depressions crosswise, exposing a series of circlets called bird’s eyes.

wood defects-Birdseye


Crack(干裂)

原木由于干燥或季节性的原因所形成的小裂缝,一般顺着木材的纹理方向。

Small slits running parallel to the grain of wood, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning

and drying.

wood defects - crackwood defect- crack


Heartwood(心材)

指在生活的树木中已不含生活细胞的中心部分,其贮藏物质(如淀粉)已不存在或转化为

心材物质;通常色深;无输导树液与贮藏营养物质的功能

The wood extending from the pith or the center of the tree to the sapwood, usually darker in

color than sapwood.

wood defect-heartwood


Honeycomb(蜂窝状孔洞)

由粉蠹类、食菌小蠹、白蚁或海生钻孔动物等密集蛀蚀木材,破坏成蜂窝状或筛孔状者。

Any substance, as a easting of iron, a piece of wormeaten wood, or of triple, etc, perforated

with cells like a honeycomb.

wood defect-Honeycomb


Knot(节子)

包含在树干或主枝木质部中的枝条部分。

A portion of a branch/limb whose growth rings are partially or completely inter grown on the

board’s face, with the growth shaped so that it will retain its place in the piece. The average

dimension of the exposed knot surface shall be used in determining the size.


Knot ,sound and tight(活节/生节)

由树木的活枝条形成,活节的木材组织与其周围的木材紧密连生,节子的质地坚硬,构造正常。

Knots that are solid across their face and fixed by growth to retain their place.

knots in timberKnot


Knot, checked(死节)

由树木的枯死枝条形成,节子的木材组织与其周围木材部分脱离或完全脱离。其质地坚硬,

有的松软。

Formed by the dead branches of a tree, the wood tissue of the knot is partially or completely detached from the surrounding wood. It's hard, Some are soft.

dead knotswood defect-knot


Mineral stain(矿物线)

土壤中的矿物质通过木材的根系吸收而沉积在木材中,具体表现为从橄榄绿到墨绿色/

棕色的类似于铅笔痕迹一样的不均匀分布的条纹。

An olive to greenish black or brown discoloration believed to show regions of abnormal

concentrations of mineral matter in some hardwoods. It is common in hard maple, hickory,

and basswood. See also Mineral streaks.

wood defect-mineral stain


Pitch

存在木材的树脂道或导管中,尤其是多年生木本植物心材部位的导管中。由多种成分组成

的混合物,通常为无定型固体,表面微有光泽,质硬而脆,少数为半固体。不溶于水,也不

吸水膨胀,易溶于醇,乙醚,氯仿等大多数有机溶剂。加热软化,最后熔融,燃烧时有浓烟,

并有特殊的香气或臭气

An accumulation of resin that occurs in separations in the wood or in the wood cells themselves.


Pitch pocket (树脂囊)

又称油眼。树脂囊是指某些针叶材年轮中间充满树脂的条状沟槽,在横断面上表现为充满树

脂的弧形裂隙,径切面上为短小的裂隙,在弦切面上为充满树脂的椭圆形浅沟槽。

well-defined opening between the annual growth rings that contains pitch.

wood defect-pitch pocketpitch pocket


Pitch streak

沉积物在木材细胞内形成一种明显的条纹。

A well-defined accumulation of pitch in the wood cells in a more or less regular streak.

pitch streak


Sapwood(边材)

树的外层,或活木,介于树皮和心材之间。边材的颜色一般比心材轻。

The outer layers, or living wood, that is between the bark and the heartwood of a tree. Sapwood is generally lighter in color than heartwood.

sapwood


Shake(环裂)

一种介于同心层(早材带与晚材带)之间的木材裂缝

A separation or rupture along the grain of wood in which the greater part occurs between the rings of annual growth (see ruptured grain).

RUPTURED GRAIN: A break or breaks in the grain or between spring wood and summer wood caused or aggravated by excessive pressure on the wood by seasoning, manufacturing, or natural processes. Ruptured grain appears as a single or a series of distinct separations in the wood, such as when spring wood is crushed, leaving the summer wood to separate in one or more growth increments.

shake Shake


Split(开裂)

木材沿纵向产生的木材裂隙(通常贯穿板材的端部)。

A separation of the wood due to the tearing apart of the wood cells.

wood defect-split


Sticker board discoloration(隔条变色)

通常呈灰色,是由木材干燥时使用隔条造成的。

Stain that is typically gray in colour occurring from stickers used to season lumber.

wood defect-sticker board discoloration


Worm hole(虫眼)

昆虫或海生钻孔动物蛀蚀木材的孔眼、坑道/隧道。

Holes resulting from infestation of worms or marks caused by various types of wood attacking insect and beetle larvae. Often appears as sound discolorations running with or across the grain in straight to wavy streaks. Sometimes referred to as “pith flecks” in certain species of Maple, Birch, and other hardwoods because of a resemblance to the color of pith.

wood defect-hole



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